In response to the increasing environmental damage wrought by poachers, authorities placed a ban on ivory in the 1980s. Although the ban resulted in an initial decrease in the sale and trade of illegal ivory and a concurrent increase in the elephant population, more pressing needs caused most Western nations to withdraw funding for poaching prevention programs. Without significant financial support, poorer countries were unable to effectively combat poachers. The resulting explosion in the ivory trade has seen prices increase to nearly 10 times the $45 per pound price at the beginning of the decade.
Unfortunately, the countries with the worst poaching problems have also tended to be the ones least able to combat the problem due to unstable political systems, corruption, lack of comprehensive enforcement programs, or some combination of all these factors. One primary hindrance to better enforcement of the ivory ban came from an inability to definitively identify the country of origin of illegal ivory.
Countries used this uncertainty to avoid responsibility for curbing illegal poaching in their territories by attempting to blame other countries for the oversights in enforcement. Now, though, zoologists have perfected a new DNA identification system. First, scientists gathered genetic data from the population of African elephants, an arduous effort that ultimately resulted in a detailed DNA-based map of the distribution of African elephants. Then, the researchers developed
a method to extract DNA evidence from ivory, allowing them to match the ivory with elephant populations on the map. Zoologists hope this new method will pinpoint the exact origin of poached ivory and force countries to accept their responsibility in enforcing the ban.
1. The passage suggests which of the following about the ivory ban?
A. It will be successful now that the DNA-based map has been developed.
B. It has been mostly unsuccessful in reducing the trade of illegal ivory.
C. It will continue to be ineffective unless the problems of political corruption are solved.
D. Western monetary support was a major factor in its success.
2.The response of the countries with the worst poaching problems to the situation was most analogous to:
A. a tax evader who uses deceptive accounting practices to hide her income from auditors
B. an embezzler who steals from her company by pilfering small amounts of money over a long period of time
C. a criminal who argues that it is not he but one of his accomplices who is guilty of a crime
D. a con artist who convinces his victim that it is in the victim’s best interest to help him
3. The passage suggests which of the following about the DNA-based map created by zoologists?
A. Its assemblage involved a great deal of work on the part of the researchers.
B. Its creation will force countries to accept responsibility for the ivory poached from within their borders.
C. The map is able to pinpoint the exact elephant from which poached ivory was obtained.
D. It must be updated constantly to account for changes in elephant populations.
4. The passage is chiefly concerned with:
A. advocating a course of action for countries with poaching problems
B. exposing the weaknesses of the ivory ban
C. pleading with Western countries to re-institute financing for the ivory ban
D. detailing a way to overcome a problem that has lessened the effectiveness of the ivory ban
5-The similar word to “Initial” is
6-Write a nearby word to “Hindrance”-
7-Write antonyms of word “Withdraw”-
8-Which word is resembles to “elephants teeth”-
9- Which word is resembles to “Combat”-
10-Which word is resembles to word ” comprehensive”